Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common tumour of the biliary tract. It is relatively rare in Western countries. However, it is widespread in different regions of the world, especially in developing countries. The most effective treatment method for gallbladder carcinoma is radical cholecystectomy. However, unfortunately, only 10-30% of patients are subject to this treatment method, since 70-90% of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The development of gallbladder carcinoma is associated with various environmental and genetic factors, also the presence of chronic inflammation and/or exposure to specific chemicals, heavy metals, and nutritional factors. The exact mechanism of how gallbladder carcinoma develops in the background of cholelithiasis is still not completely clear. During inflammatory lesions of the gallbladder, changes in the proliferation index of the gallbladder epithelium have not been studied yet. In addition to proliferative markers, it has also been shown that the reduction of cell apoptotic activity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many tumours. However, literature data on the apoptotic activity of gallbladder carcinomas are incomplete and contradictory.
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