NEW CHALLENGES _ NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND “CLUB DRUGS” (REVIEW)

Authors

  • Todadze Kh.,
  • Kavsadze E.

Keywords:

PSYCHOACTIVE, SUBSTANCES, “CLUB DRUGS”

Abstract

A new era of drug use began in the early 21st century - era of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS). NPS are narcotic or psychoactive drugs which were not indicated in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 or in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Consumption of NPS endangers individual and society health and well-being. NPS use has become widespread, as on the one hand they had the desired effects on drug users and on the other hand, trade, possession and consumption of the substances were freely possible before taking control over it. Despite the strict control over illegal turnover, they can be online purchased even nowadays. United Nations established and launched the so-called “Early Warning System” in order to reveal and control consumption of NPS. Between 2005 and 2018, the system detected and put under control 892 new psychoactive substances. The drugs were sold as independent substances or poured with well-known other substances like heroin, cocaine, ecstasy, psychoactive drugs and etc. The synthetic drugs consisted of 36% synthetic stimulators, 30% - synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, 15% - hallucinogens, 7% - opioids, 3% - sedative-hypnotics, 3% - dissociative agents and 5% - different groups. Why are new psychoactive drugs so alarming? NPS generally act on the same receptors and cause the same effects as their natural or synthetic analogues. However, their affinity and effect on the receptor system is more intensive. The new psychoactive drugs affect the human body in micro doses and their effectiveness is 100-1000 times more than their predecessors, creating a high risk of overdose. Usually the substances are called as “bio”, “bath salts”, “designer drugs” “club drugs” etc. NPS create an illusion of safety for drug users. Two or more various groups of drugs/psychotropic substances are placed in a package of a NPS strengthening a negative effects and increasing the risk of overdose for consumers. Some data even state, the mixtures may contain heavy metals which are extremely harmful for human health. The article discusses the impact of new psychoactive substances on the human body and the principles of preventing their spread in the world.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

World Drug Report 2019 (United Nations publication)

info@emcdda.europa.eu / www.emcdda.europa.eu

‘Substantial rise’ in new psychoactive drug use, http:/ /www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-31905664

Synthetic cannabis, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Synthetic cannabis#Legal status

Understanding the ‘Spice’ phenomenon, EMCDDA, Lisbon, November 2009, http://www. emcdda. europa. eu/pub- lications/thematic-papers/spice

Rosenbaum, C. D., Carreiro, S. P., & Babu, K. M. (2012). Here today, gone tomorrow... and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathino- nes (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. [Review]. Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology, 8(1), 1.

Рекомендуемые методы идентификации и анализа агонистов рецепторов синтетических каннабиноидов в изъятых материалах, http: //www.unodc.org/documents/ scientific/ Synthetic Cannabinoids Manual Russian.pdf

Miotto, K., Striebel, J., Cho, A. K., & Wang, C. (2013). Clinical and pharmacological aspects of bath salt use: A re-view of the literature and case reports. Drug and alcohol dependence, 132(1-2), 1-12

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Synthetic Cathinones (bath salts). Betheshda: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

საქართველოს კანონი ახალი ფსიქოაქტიური ნივთიერებების შესახებ (2014) - https://matsne.gov. ge/ document/view/2330479?publication=3

Published

2021-07-21

How to Cite

Todadze Kh., & Kavsadze E. (2021). NEW CHALLENGES _ NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND “CLUB DRUGS” (REVIEW). COLLECTION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF TBILISI STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, 53. Retrieved from https://journals.4science.ge/index.php/CSW/article/view/432