Insulin resistance, Thyroid, Goiter, Metabolic syndrome


In clinical practice, patients with metabolic syndrome and thyroid disease are often referred. It is noteworthy that based on the results of various population studies, there has been an increase in both thyroid disease and the incidence of signs of metabolic syndrome in adults. Therefore, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the study of possible associations between these two pathological conditions. Based on the results of various papers, the close relationship between these two pathological conditions is due on the one hand to the influence of thyroid hormones on carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and on the other hand the zobogenic effect of insulin on thyroid tissue. However, despite many scientific papers and population studies, the relationship between thyroid disease and components of the metabolic syndrome is still a matter of research, but in clinical practice, the results of these studies help to diagnose thyroid disease.


Download data is not yet available.


Cooper DS, Ladenson PW. The Thyroid Gland In: Gardner DG, Shoback D. eds. Greenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 10e, McGraw-Hill; New York, NY, 2018.

Ortiga-Carvalho TM, Sidhaye AR, Wondisford FE. Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2014; 10: 582–591

Brenta G. Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction? Journal of Thyroid Research. 2011 Oct; 2011:152850.

Köhrle J. Selenium and the thyroid. Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity. 2015 Oct 1;22(5):392-401.

Gietka-Czernel M. The thyroid gland in postmenopausal women: physiology and diseases. Przeglad menopauzalny= Menopause review. 2017 Jun;16(2):33.

Vanderpump MP. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. British medical bulletin. 2011 Sep 1;99(1).

Pemayun TG. Current diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Acta Medica Indonesiana. 2017 May 10;48(3):247-57.

Andrioli M, Carzaniga C, Persani L. Standardized ultrasound report for thyroid nodules: the endocrinologist's viewpoint. European Thyroid Journal. 2013;2(1):37-48.

Holzer K, Bartsch DK. Nodular goiter. Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen. 2020 Sep 1;91(9):712-9.

Turcios S, Lence-Anta JJ, Santana JL, Pereda CM, Velasco M, Chappe M, Infante I, Bustillo M, García A, Clero E, Maillard S. Thyroid volume and its relation to anthropometric measures in a healthy cuban population. European thyroid journal. 2015 Mar 1;4(1):55-61.

Kung AW, Chau MT, Lao TT, Tam SC, Low LC. The effect of pregnancy on thyroid nodule formation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2002 Mar 1;87(3):1010-4.

Czarnywojtek A, Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak M, Czarnocka B, Sawicka-Gutaj N, Gut P, Krela-Kazmierczak I, Ruchala M. Effect of lithium carbonate on the function of the thyroid gland: Mechanism of action and clinical implications. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Apr 1;71(2).

Fröhlich E, Wahl R. Microbiota and Thyroid Interaction in Health and Disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Aug;30(8):479-490. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2019.05.008. Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31257166.

Ihnatowicz P, Drywień M, Wątor P, Wojsiat J. The importance of nutritional factors and dietary management of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2020 Jun 19;27(2):184-193.

Chailurkit L.O., Aekplakorn W., Ongphiphadhanakul B. High vitamin D status in younger individuals is associated with low circulatingthyrotropin. Thyroid. 2013;23:25–30. doi: 10.1089/thy.2012.0001

Mansorian B., Attari M.M.A., Vahabzadeh D., Mohebbi I. Serum vitamin D level and its relation to thyroid hormone, blood sugar and lipid profiles in Iranian sedentary work staff. Nutr. Hosp. 2018;35:1107–1114. doi: 10.20960/nh.1719

Talebi S., Ghaedi E., Sadeghi E., Mohammadi H., Hadi A., Clark C.C.T., Askari G. Trace element status and hypothyroidism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2020;197:1–14.

Fu J., Yang A., Zhao J., Zhu Y., Gu Y., Xu Y., Chen D. The relationship between iron level and thyroid function during the first trimester of pregnancy: A cross-sectional study in Wuxi, China. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2017;43:148–152.

Katagiri R., Yuan X., Kobayashi S., Sasaki S. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173722.

Gore A.C., Chappell V.A., Fenton S.E., Flaws J.A., Nadal A., Prins G.S., Toppari J., Zoeller R.T. EDC-2: The endocrine society’s second scientific statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Endocr. Rev. 2015;36:E1–E150. doi: 10.1210/er.2015-1010.

Babić Leko M, Gunjača I, Pleić N, Zemunik T. Environmental Factors Affecting Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormone Levels. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 17;22(12):6521.

Крутиков ЕС, Цветков ВА, Глушко АС, Базь МА. Структурно-функциональные нарушения щитовидной железы у больных сахарным диабетом 2-го типа. Таврический медико-биологический вестник. 2013;16(3):71-3.

Wang C. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and related thyroid diseases. Journal of diabetes research. 2013 Oct;2013.

Simsir IY, Cetinkalp S, Kabalak T. Review of factors contributing to nodular goiter and thyroid carcinoma. Medical Principles and Practice. 2020;29(1):1-5.

Palmer MK, Toth PP. Trends in lipids, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus in the United States: an NHANES analysis (2003-2004 to 2013-2104). Obesity 2019; 27: 309–314.

Brenta G, Caballero AS, Nunes MT. Case finding for hypothyroidism should include type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome patients: a Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) position statement. Endocr Pract 2019; 25: 101–105.

Wolffenbuttel BHR, Wouters HJCM, Slagter SN, et al. Thyroid function and metabolic syndrome in the population-based LifeLines cohort study. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017; 17: 65.

Kapadia KB, Bhatt PA, Shah JS. Association between altered thyroid state and insulin resistance. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. 2012 Apr; 3(2):156.

Kushchayeva YS, Kushchayev SV, Startzell M, Cochran E, Auh S, Dai Y, Lightbourne M, Skarulis M, Brown RJ. Thyroid abnormalities in patients with extreme insulin resistance syndromes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2019 Jun;104(6):2216-28.

Brenta G. Diabetes and thyroid disorders. The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2010 Jul;10(4):172-7.

Keşkek ŞÖ, Kırım S, Kaya R, Canataroğlu A. The effects of thyroid dysfunctions on insulin resistance in patients with hepatosteatosis. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University. 2014 Nov 1; 23(6):913-8.

Cicatiello AG, Di Girolamo D, Dentice M. Metabolic effects of the intracellular regulation of thyroid hormone: old players, new concepts. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2018 Sep 11; 9:474.

Torrance CJ, deVente JE, Jones JP, Dohm GL. Effects of thyroid hormone on GLUT4 glucose transporter gene expression and NIDDM in rats. Endocrinology. 1997 Mar 1;138(3):1204-14.

Вербовой АФ, Долгих ЮА, Косарева ОВ, Шаронова ЛА, Цанава ИА. Инсулинорезистентность и тиреоидные гормоны. Фарматека. 2017(5):91-5.

Tang Y, Yan T, Wang G, Chen Y, Zhu Y, Jiang Z, Yang M, Li C, Li Z, Yu P, Wang S. Correlation between insulin resistance and thyroid nodule in type 2 diabetes mellitus. International journal of endocrinology. 2017 Oct 12;2017.

Heidari Z, Mashhadi MA, Nosratzehi S. Insulin resistance in patients with benign thyroid nodules. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2015 Sep 1;18(9):572-6.

Ayturk S, Gursoy A, Kut A, Anil C, Nar A, Tutuncu NB. Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient area. European Journal of endocrinology. 2009 Oct 1;161(4):599.

Rezzonico J, Rezzonico M, Pusiol E, Pitoia F, Niepomniszcze H. Introducing the thyroid gland as another victim of the insulin resistance syndrome. Thyroid. 2008 Apr 1;18(4):461-4.

Бобрик МИ. Взаимное влияние тиреоидного и углеводного обмена. Парадигмы и парадоксы. Международный эндокринологический журнал. 2015; 3(67):127-32.

Tang Y, Yan T, Wang G, Chen Y, Zhu Y, Jiang Z, Yang M, Li C, Li Z, Yu P, Wang S. Correlation between insulin resistance and thyroid nodule in type 2 diabetes mellitus. International journal of endocrinology. 2017 Oct 12; 2017.

Tsatsoulis A. The role of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinism on the rising trend of thyroid and adrenal nodular disease in the current environment. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018 Mar; 7(3):37.

Buscemi S, Massenti FM, Vasto S, Galvano F, Buscemi C, Corleo D, Barile AM, Rosafio G, Rini N, Giordano C. Association of obesity and diabetes with thyroid nodules. Endocrine. 2018 May; 60(2):339-47

Xiao Y, Mao J, Mao X, Wang Q, Li X, Chen G, Guo L, Huang H, Mu Y, Xu S, Liu C. Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with thyroid volume in adolescents. BMC Endocr Disord. 2021 Aug 28; 21(1):176.

Yin DT, He H, Yu K, Xie J, Lei M, Ma R, Li H, Wang Y, Liu Z. The association between thyroid cancer and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and its components: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2018 Sep; 57:66-75.




How to Cite





Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.