THE ROLE OF MATERNAL AGE AND MEDICAL HISTORY IN THE RISK OF NON-DEVELOPING PREGNANCY
Keywords:non-developing pregnancy, woman's age, medical history, odds ratio
Non-developing pregnancy is a complex problem, risk factors, as well as causes, are not fully understood. Objective: to assess the relationship of non-developing pregnancy with maternal age and medical history. The study involved 123 pregnant women, of which 103 pregnant women with non-developing pregnancy for up to 12 weeks (main group) and 20 women in the same period of pregnancy without complications (control group). Data collection included: age of patients, severity of pregnancy, parity, history of previous pregnancy and childbirth. Among the women of the main group, two groups of women with different forms of non-developing pregnancy were distinguished: group I - 45.6% of women with non-developing pregnancy according to type I anembryony, group II - 54.4% of women - according to the type of embryonic death. The age of women ranged from 20 to 38 years. The average age of women in the main group was 31.01±2.85 years. In 35.0% of cases, women were aged 20-30 years, in 65.0% of cases - aged 31-38 years. The average age of patients in group I with anembryony was 30.14±4.82 years, in group II with embryonic death - 32.54±5.05 years, in the control group 25.6±2.15 years. In groups I, II and the control group, at the age of 20-30 there were 42.6%, 28.6% and 60.0% of women, and in the age group of 31-38 years - 57.4%, 71.4% and 40.0% of women, respectively. The probability of miscarriage development was significantly higher in the older age group (OR=0.292, 95% CI 0.163-0.512, p<0.05). There are significantly more primigravidas in group I than in group II (p=0.012), and there are significantly more recurrent pregnancies in group II (p=0.012). There was a high probability of term delivery in group I - OR=2.914 (95% CI 1.025-8.285, p<0.05). The probability of miscarriage (OR=0.841 95% CI 0.306-2.310, p>0.05), medical abortion (OR=0.568 95% CI 0.176-1.831, p>0.05) was high in group II. Women with a history of miscarriage and abortion should be more closely monitored and assisted with appropriate interventions in the first trimester or even before conception to achieve better clinical outcomes.
Ali S, Majid S, Niamat Ali M, Taing S, El-Serehy HA, Al-Misned FA. Evaluation of etiology and pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020;27(10):2809-2817.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 200: Early Pregnancy Loss. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;132(5):e197-e207.
Cohain JS, Buxbaum RE, Mankuta D. Spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women with 1 or more pregnancies of 24 weeks or more. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017;17(1):437
Deng L, Chen HF, et al. Analysis results of 169 cases of chorionic villus samples of missed abortion using high throughput sequencing. EurRev Med Pharm Sci.2022;26(15):5496-5502
Fang J, Xie B, Chen B, Qiao C, Zheng B, Luan X, et al. Biochemical clinical factors associated with missed abortion independent of maternal age: A retrospective study of 795 cases with missed abortion and 694 cases with normal pregnancy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(50):e13573.
Gong G, Yin C, Huang Y, Yang Y, Hu T, Zhu Z, et al. A survey of influencing factors of missed abortion during the two-child peak period. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021;41(6):977-980.
Hassan BA, Elmugabil A, Alhabrdi NA, Ahmed ABA, Rayis DA, Adam I. Maternal age and miscarriage: A unique association curve in Sudan. African J Reprod Health. 2022; 26(7):15-21.
Herkiloglu D, Gokce S, Cevik O. Relationship of interferon regulator factor 5 and interferon-gamma with missed abortion. Exp. Ther. Med. 2022;23(5):356.
Jiang WZ, Yang XL, Luo JR. Risk factors for missed abortion: retrospective analysis of a single institution’s experience. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2022;20:115.
Li X, Kang H, Yin H, Liu T, Hou Q, Yu X, et al. How many missed abortions are caused by embryonic chromosomal abnormalities and what are their risk factors? Front Genet. 2023;13:1058261.
Lidegaard Ø, Mikkelsen AP, Egerup P, Kolte AM, Rasmussen SC, Nielsen HS. Pregnancy loss: A 40- year nationwide assessment. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99(11):1492-1496.
Mohammad-Akbari A, Mohazzab A, Tavakoli M, Karimi A, Zafardoust S, Zolghadr, Z, et al. The effect of low-molecular-weight heparin on live birth rate of patients with unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss: A two-arm randomized clinical trial. J. Res. Med. Sci. 2022; 27:78.
Yavuz P, Taze M, Salihoglu O. The effect of adolescent and advanced-age pregnancies on maternal and early neonatal clinical data. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022;35(25):7399-7405.
Zhang M, Yang BY, Sun Y, Qian Z, Xaverius PK, Aaron HE, et al. Non-linear Relationship of Maternal Age With Risk of Spontaneous Abortion: A Case-Control Study in the China Birth Cohort. Front Public Health. 2022;10:933654.