Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) was first described during early embryogenesis as a well-defined program with various morphogenetic events. The process of transformation has been identified in the later stages of embryonic development as well and during wound healing in adults. It is noteworthy that during normal embryonic development or in a pathological context, the transition from the epithelium to the mesenchymal state is often incomplete, which leads to the formation of cells that are in an intermediate state and retain epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. Importantly, these intermediate states can be diverse, depending on the biological context. Transformation is a transient state that may be followed by a reversible process, toward mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation (ME). Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation research is rapidly expanding day by day and is gaining special importance in study of the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. Transformation in tumors involves dynamic changes in cellular organization - from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotypes, leading to the cell migration, invasion, and functional changes associated with these processes; It is the complex multi-step process of loss of cell polarity, cell-cell adhesion and at the same time acquisition of migration, invasiveness and mesenchymal characteristics by epithelial cells.
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