Heart rate changes in swimming exercised 12-13-week-old white experimental rats


swimming exercises

How to Cite

Vachadze , N. ., Khetsuriani , R. ., Pailodze, M. ., Pruidze Liparteliani , N., & Chikhladze, R. (2022). Heart rate changes in swimming exercised 12-13-week-old white experimental rats. Georgian Scientists, 4(4), 208–214. https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.04.23


The aim of the study was to determine the heart rate in 12-13-week-old rats under conditions of a 6-week dosed swimming load. In general, rat swimming is considered one of the best methods for studying cardiological parameters and the adaptive capabilities of the heart. As part of our study, we ensured 12-13-weeks-old male rats to undergo dosed swimming exercises for 4 and 6 weeks, at the end of each week we studied the electrocardiographic data of rats in order to assess the dynamics of changes in the frequency of contractions in experimental groups. The rats were divided into 3 groups: 1) a control group that did not receive any load (n=6); 2) The frst study group was subjected to a daily 30-minute swimming load for 4 weeks with a weight in the amount of 3% of the body weight of the rat (n=6) attached to the tail, 3) The second study group, which was subjected to a daily 60-minute swimming exercise for 6 weeks, the weight of the load attached to the tail amounted to 4% of the weight of the rat (n=6).  Significant changes in cardiac contractility were observed only in experimental rats (30-minute exercise with a load of 3% of body weight or a 60-minute load with a load of 4% of body weight). In most rats, initial tachycardia was followed by prolonged bradycardia. The mentioned study can be considered as another step forward in the study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of pathological changes in rhythm and frequency that occur during exercise.



Noninvasive recording of electrocardiogram in conscious rat: A new device. Kumar P, Srivastava P, Gupta A, Bajpai M.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2017 Jan-Feb; 49(1): 116-118. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.201031.

Sgoifo A, Stilli D, Medici D, Gallo P, Aimi B, Musso E. Electrode positioning for reliable telemetry ECG recordings during social stress in unrestrained rats. Physiol Behav. 1996; 60: 1397–401.

Pogwizd SM, Schlotthauer K, Li L, Yuan WL, Bers DM. Arrhythmogenesis and contractile dysfunction in heart failure - Roles of sodium-calcium exchange, inward rectifier potassium current, and residual beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Circ Res. 2001; 88: 1159–67.

Sipido KR, Volders PGA, Vos MA, Verdonck F. Altered Na/Ca exchange activity in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: a new target for therapy? Cardiovasc Res. 2002; 53: 782–805.

Janse, MJ, Wit, AL. Electrophysiological mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias resulting from myocardial ischemia and infarction. Physiol Rev. 1989; 69(4): 1049–1169.

The impact of artifact correction methods of RR series on heart rate variability parameters. Rincon Soler AI, Silva LEV, Fazan R Jr, Murta LO Jr. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Mar 1;124(3):646-652. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00927.2016. Epub 2017 Sep 21.


Reuter H, Pott C, Goldhaber JI, Henderson SA, Philipson KD, Schwinger RHG. Na+-Ca2+exchange in the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Cardiovasc Res. 2005; 67: 198–207.

Gaughan JP, Furukawa S, Jeevanandam V, Hefner CA, Kubo H, Margulies KB, et al. Sodium/calcium exchange contributes to contraction and relaxation in failed human ventricular myocytes. Amer J Physiol. 1999; 277: H714–H724.

Houser SR, Piacentino V, Weisser J. Abnormalities of calcium cycling in the hypertrophied and failing heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000; 32: 1595–607.

Terracciano CMN, DeSouza AI, Philipson KD, MacLeod KT. Na+ - Ca2+ exchange and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ regulation in ventricular myocytes overexpressing the Na+ - Ca2+ exchanger. J Physiol London. 1998; 512: 651–67.

Weisser-Thomas J, Piacentino V, Gaughan JP, Margulies K, Houser SR. Calcium entry via Na/Ca exchange during the action potential directly contributes to contraction of failing human ventricular myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;57:974–85.

Petit-Demouliere, B; Chenu, F; Bourin, M (January 2005). "Forced swimming test in mice: a review of antidepressant activity". Psychopharmacology. 177(3): 245–55. doi: 10.1007/s00213-004-2048-7.

Hobai IA, ORourke B. Enhanced Ca2+-activated Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity in canine pacing-induced heart failure. Circ Res. 2000; 87: 690–8.

Kent RL, Rozich JD, McCollam PL, McDermott DE, Thacker UF, Menick DR, et al. Rapid expression of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in response to cardiac pressure overload - rapid communication. Am J Physiol. 1993; 265: H1024–H1029.

Schillinger W, Fiolet JW, Schlotthauer K, Hasenfuss G. Relevance of Na+-Ca2+ exchange in heart failure. Cardiovasc Res.2003; 57: 921–33.

Studer R, Reinecke H, Bilger J, Eschenhagen T, Bohm M, Hasenfuss G, et al. Gene expression of the cardiac Na+ - Ca2+ exchanger in end-stage human heart failure. Circ Res. 1994; 75: 443–53.

Chapman S, Windle J, Xie F, McGrain A, Porter TR. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias with therapeutic versus diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous microbubbles. J Ultrasound Med. 2005; 24: 1099–1107. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Zhang XQ, Song JL, Rothblum LI, Lun MY, Wang XJ, Ding F, et al. Overexpression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger alters contractility and SR Ca2+ content in adult rat myocytes. Amer J Physiol. 2001; 281: H2079–H2088.

Walden, A. P.; Dibb, K. M.; Trafford, A. W. (April 2009). "Differences in intracellular calcium homeostasis between atrial and ventricular myocytes". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 46(4): 463–473. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.11.003.

Schultz JEJ, Glascock BJ, Witt SA, Nieman ML, Nattamai KJ, Liu LH, Lorenz JN, et al. Accelerated onset of heart failure in mice during pressure overload with chronically decreased SERCA2 calcium pump activity. Am J Physiol. 2004; 286: H1146–H1153.

Porsolt, RD; Le Pichon, M; Jalfre, M (21 April 1977). "Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments". Nature. 266(5604): 730–2.Natur.266..730P. doi:10.1038/266730a0.

Kmecova J, Klimas J. Heart rate correction of the QT duration in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010; 641: 187–92.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...