HumanH happiness, Conscience and Duties
Keywords:Morality, ethics, moral behavior, duty, happiness
Mankind has long faced the question - what is the main thing in human life, Why is life worth living?Some philosophers considered happiness-pleasure-bliss to be the highest value. Consequently, the meaning of human lifewas seen in achieving all this (Democrats, Epicureans and Epicureans, French and English materialists, Feuerbach, Russian Revolutionary Democrats), while others viewed life in accordance with duty. According to the ethics of happiness, the main orientation of morality is the pursuit of happiness; Morality is what leads a person to happiness. This does not preclude a moment of temporary suffering and distress in order to achieve ultimate bliss.Such an understanding of happiness and the recognition of bliss as the meaning of human life has aroused the desire of all sections of society to strive for happiness. That caused a collision between the interests of people, often irreconcilable conflicts and contradictions.Ethical rigorism based morality solely on a sense of duty and ruled out human spontaneous aspirations. It is essentially the same as asceticism. And according to the representatives of the ethics of duty, we should look for the meaning of human life in the specifics of human life. If we see the meaning of human life in the pursuit of happiness and bliss, then Then human life is nothing higher than the existence of animals - the regulator of animal behavior is also pleasure-enjoyment-bliss! Man stands above the animal world so much that he can subdue his aspirations towards sources of pleasure and live according to his\her duties. People have these responsibilities to the homeland, relatives and humanity, as well as to themselves. For example, taking care of your own health-beauty, acquiring knowledge, moral perfection. Performing duty requires great spiritual tension, a strict attitude towards oneself, that is why living according to duty is the specificity of human existence, which gives a person a sense of dignity and perfection.Ethics historians point out that eventually, from the "back door", the ethics of duty also goes to the ethics of happiness, because it promises people to achieve happiness through the performance of duties. By the same logic, ethics, happiness attributed to Christian ethics too. Christian ethics emphasizes man's responsibilities to God, his parents, other people, and even his own enemies. At the same time, this will faithfully discharge the duties of the person promises to God's mercy in this world and paradise in the country. It is nothing but happiness. Duty as the end of human life was recognized by Immanuel Kant. In his view, morality and moral behavior must be based on a sense of duty, regardless of any consequences of the behavior (see Kant's categorical imperative).
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