Aggressive geopolitics and questions about the theory of space

Aggressive geopolitics and questions about the theory of space


  • Marina Izoria



            In the 21st century, no nation is immune from the problem of forced displacement, and many countries and communities are showing extraordinary generosity and compassion towards those who are forced to flee. However, the distribution of refugees around the world is still significantly skewed towards less affluent regions. Nearly 90% of UN-mandated refugees live in low- and middle-income countries, often very close to situations of conflict. Countries that are among the least developed host a quarter of all refugees in the world. The international refugee protection system developed after World War II was designed to respond to the potentially destabilizing effects of population displacement. International solidarity and responsibility-sharing are essential but often elusive elements of this system, vital to protecting the rights of refugees wherever they are, as well as providing support to host countries. At a time when solidarity and responsibility-sharing are needed more than ever, states are concerned about the security concerns of international terrorism and are once again focusing on border controls. Hostility towards foreigners is on the rise in many countries, and physical and legal barriers designed to prevent irregular migration affect many people who are trying to find security. As the authors of this Handbook attempt to explain, border management and refugee protection are not mutually exclusive. States can and should put in place robust mechanisms to identify individuals in need of protection, just as they can and should identify individuals who may pose a security threat. On the other hand, it should be noted that the states themselves are the cause of conflicts, since aggressive geopolitics leads to wars, changes in borders, and sometimes the creation of new states and, accordingly, people are forced to leave their homes. In the study of international relations, the question of interleaving, refugees and their new space has arisen, which causes new conflicts in the new space. In the theory of territories and space, there are several views on these issues, the coverage of these issues is the task of the presented article.


Download data is not yet available.


Апатри́д или лицо́ без гражда́нства — физическое лицо, не имеющее какого-либо гражданства или подданства и не обладающее доказательствами, которые могли бы установить принадлежность его к какому-либо гражданству или подданству. По данным на 2017 год, 12 миллионов человек в мире не имели никакого гражданства.

Здесь же отметим, что грузинские беженцы с оккупированных Россией территории Грузии вот уже более 30-ти лет живут в ужасающих социальных условиях, но в отличие от сирийских у грузинских нет проблем с официальными документами, удостоверяющее их гражданство так как большая их часть перемещена в другие области Грузии.

Tarak Barkawi and Mark LaffeyView . Retrieving the Imperial: Empire and International Relations. Steinmetz, 2022

Barry Buzanand, Ole Wæver. RegionsandPowers The StructureofInternational Security.Cambridge University press, 2004

Jonathan Agnew. 1994. The territorial trap: The geographical assumptions of international relations theory. Review of International Political Economy 1 (1):53–80. doi:10.1080/09692299408434268., [Google Scholar]

Там же.

Elden, S. 2013. The birth of territory. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. , [Google Scholar]

Branch, J. 2013. The cartographic state : maps, territory and the origins of sovereignty. New York: Cambridge University Press. , [Google Scholar]

Meier, D. 2018. Introduction to the special issue: Bordering the Middle East. Geopolitics 23 (3):495–504. doi:10.1080/14650045.2018.1497375. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Foucault, M.,and J. Miskowiec. 1986. Of other spaces. Diacritics 16 (1):22–27. doi:10.2307/464648. [Google Scholar]

Указ. Работы.

Moisio, S., and A. Paasi. 2013. Beyond state-centricity: Geopolitics of changing state spaces. Geopolitics 18 (2):255–66.

Albert, M., D. Jacobson, and Y. Lapid. 2001. Identities, borders, orders : Rethinking international relations theory. Minneapolis, Minn.; London: University of Minnesota Press. [Google Scholar]

Там же

Foucault, M., and J. Miskowiec. 1986. Of other spaces. Diacritics 16 (1):22–27.doi:10.2307/464648. [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Там же.

Harvey, D. 2000. Cosmopolitanism and the banality of geographical evils. Public Culture 12 (2):529–64. doi:10.1215/08992363-12-2-529. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar];

Harvey, D. 2000b. Spaces of hope. California studies in critical human geography . Berkeley: University of California Press. [Google Scholar];Harvey, D. 2007. The kantian roots of foucault’s dilemma. In Space, knowledge and power : Foucault and geography, ed. J. W. Crampton and S. Elden, . Aldershot, England: Ashgate. [Google Scholar]

Saldanha, A. 2008. Heterotopia and Structuralism. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 40 (9):2080–96. doi:10.1068/a39336., [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Salter, M. B. 2007. Governmentalities of an Airport: Heterotopia and Confession. International Political Sociology 1 (1):49–66. doi:10.1111/j.1749-5687.2007.00004.x. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Johnson, P. 2006. Unravelling Foucault’s ‘different spaces’. History of the Human Sciences 19 (4):75–90. doi:10.1177/0952695106069669. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Agier, M. 2010. Managing the undesirables : Refugee camps and humanitarian government. [Google Scholar]

Там же.

Lafazani, O. 2013. A border within a border: The migrants’ squatter settlement in Patras as a heterotopia. Journal of Borderlands Studies 28 (1):1–13. doi:10.1080/08865655.2012.751731. Online], [Google Scholar]

Pugliese, J. 2009. Crisis heterotopias and border zones of the dead. Continuum 23 (5):663–79. doi:10.1080/10304310903183627., [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]

Boedeltje, F. 2012. The other spaces of Europe: Seeing European geopolitics through the disturbing eye of foucault’s heterotopias. Geopolitics 17 (1):1–24. doi:10.1080/14650045.2010.504762. [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]