From the History of the struggle against Soviet power in Abkhazia (1921-1931)


  • Bezhan Khorava



           Questions of the history of Abkhazia in the 20-30s of the XX century are poorly studied. This is especially true of anti-Soviet speeches, since not all materials are yet available and in Soviet historiography these events were silent. Our article deals with one of understudied topics. In February 1921, the Red Army of Soviet Russia invaded Georgia. Soviet power was established in Georgia. On March 4, after prolonged fighting, units of the Red Army entered the city of Sukhumi. The chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Abkhazia, the Georgian Bolshevik I. Zhvania, proclaimed the establishment of Soviet power. Fight against Russian occupation and puppet Soviet government flared up in Georgia from the very first days. It is noteworthy that on the second day of the capture of Sukhumi By the Red Army, on March 5, a large protest rally was held here. Despite the resistance of the new government, in 1921 May 26 - Independence Day. Georgia - was widely noted throughout Georgia, including in Abkhazia.         At the beginning of May 1922, branches of the Extraordinary Commissions began arrests throughout Georgia. This event was of a preventive nature in connection with the upcoming Day Independence - May 26 [16, p. 325]. May 12 to the Kodori district branch of the Abkhazchek received a notification that performances were scheduled for May 26. It was found, that an illegal organization operated in the city of Ochamchira, whose members were engaged in anti-Soviet propaganda in the villages and prepared an armed uprising. According to the investigative materials, the purpose of the uprising was "to remind and show Europe that the Abkhaz and Georgian peoples are striving for the return of Menshevik power, and that the dream of a former independent Menshevik Georgia has not died out among the population”  Abkhazcheka arrested members of an illegal organization: Mushni Dadeshkeliani, Alexandra Machavariani, Vasili Kvaratskhelia, Tamshuga Anchabadze, Nestor Anua, Seitbeya Dzyapsh-Ipa, Tatasha Dzyapsh-Ipa, Alexander Marshania, Krbeya Marshania and others, total 47 people. They were sentenced to various punishments. many members illegal organization, including Nestor Dadiani, brothers Mushni and Otar Dadiani, Astamur Dzyapsh-Ipa, Vasili Gurjua, member of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia in 1919-1921 and others managed to escape.  In 1922-1923. an anti-Soviet organization operated in Abkhazia, which close She had contacts with the leaders of the anti-Soviet movement in Tbilisi. One of The head of the organization was David Mkheidze, a graduate of the Voronezh Cadet corps, participant in the World War, awarded for bravery with two St.crosses and golden weapons. He served in the army of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, after the establishment of Soviet power, he lived in Sukhumi, was part of the anti-Soviet group operating in Abkhazia. At the beginning of April 1923, members of this organizations, including David Mkheidze, but due to lack of evidence, was released  At the end of August 1924, an anti-Soviet uprising began in Georgia. Insurrection also affected Abkhazia. On the night of August 29, the rebels under the leadership of Constantine Dadeshkeliani took power in the Kodori Gorge, protests took place in the villages Samurzakan district, including in the Saberio region, where the uprising was led by Chkhotua.  On April 17, 1930, the III session of the Central Executive Committee of Abkhazia discussed the issue of revising the status Abkhazia. The Abkhaz government's note prepared for the CEC session stated:“Due to the fact that the treaty of December 16, 1921 has lost its real significance and, therefore, it can only be regarded as an agreement on the unification of the SSR Abkhazia with the SSR Georgia, and the actual relationship of these republics was exactly defined in their constitutions - it must be recognized that the name of the contractual SSR. Abkhazia has no real content.”  The session of the CEC of Abkhazia withdrew from of the Constitution, the concept of "treaty republic", replacing it with the concept of "autonomous republic". On February 11, 1931, the changes in the Constitution were approved by the VI Congress of Soviets     Abkhazia and decided: “Include Abkhazia on an autonomous basis in the Georgian. Soviet Socialist Republic" [10, p. 506]. February 14, 1931 VI Congress of Soviets Georgia confirmed the decisions of the VI Congress of Soviets of Abkhazia.


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Author Biography

Bezhan Khorava

Doctor of History, Professor University of Georgia  (Georgia)


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How to Cite

Khorava, B. (2023). From the History of the struggle against Soviet power in Abkhazia (1921-1931). INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "THE CAUCASUS AND THE WORLD", (26).